LSA and Port State Control Inspections


The results of Last 5 Years (2016-2020) in Table 1 show the importance of LSA in PSC inspections:

 

Deficiency Category(all)

Detainable Deficiency Category

Regime

Share

Rank

Share

Rank

Global

10.1%

5

8.5%

5

Paris MoU

8.5%

5

7.3%

7

Tokyo MoU

12.5%

3

8.2%

6

USCG

14.6%

3

9.3%

4

Vina Del Mar

8.8%

5

12.50%

2

AMSA

8.9%

5

8.50%

5

 

Table 1: Results of PSC Inspections during 2016-2020 / Source RISK4SEA

Taking into consideration the Deficiency Code Lists in all PSC Regimes (as more or less it is similar), the section 11 is dedicated to Life Saving Appliances. There are 36 Deficiency Codes used to describe items found on board related to LSA (Table 2)

Code

Description

Code

Description

11101

Lifeboats

11119

Immersion suits

11102

Lifeboat inventory

11120

Anti-exposure suits

11103

Stowage and provision of lifeboats

11121

Thermal Protective Aids

11104

Rescue boats

11122

Radio life-saving appliances

11105

Rescue boat inventory

11123

Emergency equipment for 2-way comm.

11106

Fast rescue boats

11124

Embarkation arrangement survival craft

11107

Stowage of rescue boats

11125

Embarkation arrangements rescue boats

11108

Inflatable liferafts

11126

Means of recovery of life saving appliances

11109

Rigid liferafts

11127

Buoyant apparatus

11110

Stowage of liferafts

11128

Line-throwing appliance

11111

Marine evacuation system

11129

Operational readiness of lifesaving appliances

11112

Launching arrangements for survival craft

11130

Evaluation, testing and approval

11113

Launching arrangements for rescue boats

11131

On board training and instructions

11114

Helicopter landing and pick-up area

11132

Maintenance and inspections

11115

Means of rescue

11133

Personal and group survival equipment

11116

Distress flares

11134

Operation of Life Saving Appliances

11117

Lifebuoys incl. provision and disposition

11135

Maintenance of Life Saving Appliances

11118

Lifejackets incl. provision and disposition

11199

Other (life saving)

Table 2: Deficiency Codes related to LSA

Reviewing the results of PSC findings for the last 5 years (2016-2020), the most common deficiencies marked on LSA are shown in Table 3

Global PSC Findings (2016-2020)

 

Description

Deficiency

Detainable Def.

Share

Number

Share

Number

11101

Lifeboats

1.8%

11655

2.0%

995

11102

Lifeboat inventory

1.3%

8912

11104

Rescue boats

1.1%

7541

1.1%

547

11105

Rescue boat inventory

0.5%

3805

 

Table 3: Most Common Deficiencies (2016-2020)/ Source RISK4SEA

According to data, the most findings are related to boats (Lifeboats and Rescue Boats). A high number of findings also include the inventories related to boats, however these findings usually do not lead to detentions. Following the above most common findings and having grouped what PSCOs have marked for each code critical issues can be identified, shown in table 4

Code

PSC Officer Comment

11101 – Lifeboats

Inadequate equipment condition

Not marked as required

Securing equipment not as required

Launching means not tested

SWL missing from launching arrangements

Engine not started

Battery charger found disconnected

Steering means inoperative

Launching instructions missing

Navigational lights inoperative

Wrong navigational lights sectors

Auto stop limit switches inoperative

Broken windows

Coxswain glass damaged (no visibility)

Fuel tank found with low level of fuel

Lub oil used not specific for -15o C activation

Pins of both lifeboats’ skates seized seriously

Crew seat belts were restricted with tape preventing crew from safe use

11102 – Lifeboat inventory

Not as required

Items in Lifeboat not in accordance with inventory

11104 – Rescue boats

Inadequate equipment condition

Not marked as required

Securing equipment not as required

Launching means not tested

SWL missing from launching arrangements

Engine not started

Battery charger found disconnected

Steering means inoperative

Launching instructions missing

Navigational lights inoperative

Wrong navigational lights sectors

Fuel tank found with low level of fuel

Painter release device for rescue boat stacked and not flexible

11105 -Rescue boat inventory

Not as required

Items in Rescue boat not in accordance with inventory

11118 – Lifejackets incl. provision and disposition

Inadequate equipment condition

Crew not familiar with equipment use

Lifejackets found without light and/or whistle attached

Stored lifejackets inoperative

Inadequate size of lifejackets distributed to crew

Number of lifejackets not sufficient for the total number of persons on board

Inspections records missing

Maintenance records missing

11119 – Immersion suits

Inadequate equipment condition

Crew not familiar with equipment use

Stored immersion suits inoperative

Inadequate size of immersion suits distributed to crew

Number of immersion suits not sufficient for the total number of persons on board

Inspections records missing

Maintenance records missing

Immersion suit zippers are not in working order or the seams are severely deteriorated, rendering them inoperable

Table 4 / Source RISK4SEA

Life Saving Appliances are not only related to boats. As the number of standard Deficiency codes indicates, many items are related with seafarers survival equipment (lifejackets, lifebuoys, immersion suits etc.). There are some items of high importance that are related to such codes. For example, the condition and use of lifejackets is of most importance for preserving seafarers’ life at sea. Items related to such “personal” survival equipment, have usually to do with condition, size, components and familiarization of crew on how to use them.

AMSA guidance on Lifeboats

AMSA notes that lifeboats may be found deficient if any of below items cannot be properly demonstrated. If this happens, the ship will be detained until a lifeboat technician can fix it. Guidance can be summed up to the following:

  • Check the release system and interlock is set correctly.
  • If fitted, check the indicators are clear and in correct position.
  • Keep the instructions secured in the boat.
  • Check the lifeboat’s painter release is operable.
  • Check the engine has enough fuel and is de-watered as necessary.
  • Turn the lifeboat on and make sure there is no start delay.
  • Test the propulsion allows it to go ahead and astern and that it can be steered in all directions.
  • Keep the engine starting batteries maintained and in good condition.

USCG Alerts

UCSG has issued a number of alerts in order to notify operators on items related to LSA.

Safety Alert 13-16: Guidance on air inflatable life jackets

Safety Alert 09-17: Provides alert for inspection of lights of life jackets

Safety Alert 03-18: Includes comments on deficiencies found related to immersion suits’ condition and provides guidance on adequate inspections

Safety Alert 03-20: Addresses the importance of checking for and replacing damaged control cables that operate between the release handle and hook in a lifeboat hook release system

Best Practices

Equipment Availability and Condition, Maintenance, and Familiarization / training are the three key issues for all operators to focus on.

#1 Equipment availability & Condition

LSA on board should follow the specifications included in SOLAS and LSA code. Special care should be given to the type of ship in order to have additional equipment if required (eg. Passenger ships)

#2 Maintenance

The LSA equipment following SOLAS Maintenance and manufacturers’ maintenance requirements, is to be checked in the specific intervals (generally divided in weekly, monthly, annually and 5yearly intervals). As included in the new amendments of SOLAS (January 2020), authorized and certified personnel, are assigned with the responsibility for inspection & maintenance.

#3 Familiarization & Training.

All crew members are certified on STCW Sections A-VI/1-1; A-VI/1-2; A-VI/1-3; A-VI/1-4, however this a generic approach. Additional specific familiarization is to be provided on LSA equipment on board following training session aiming to individual training (personal familiarization) or team training (drills).



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